Saturday, May 21, 2016

Daily Inspirational Quote - May 21, 2016

“Wake up with determination. Go to bed with satisfaction.”

Personally I wake up every morning thankful for actually waking up! Joking aside, how many of us wake up and spend a minute or two thinking about the day ahead with something less than anticipation? From today, when you wake up, try to picture your day ahead and feel determined to get the very best out of the whole day you can! This should find you starting your day with anticipation and an eagerness that will carry you through the following hours and bring, not only to you, but to the people you encounter and interact with, a sense of wellbeing, cheerfulness and positive energy. So, by the time you climb back into bed and snuggle down you fall asleep with a smile on your face in anticipation of the next day being much the same.


Smart By Nature: Schooling for Sustainability

"There is a bold new movement underway in school systems across North America and around the world. Educators, parents, and students are remaking K-12 education to prepare students for the environmental challenges of the coming decades. They are discovering that guidance for living abundantly on a finite planet lies, literally, under their feet and all around them -- in living soil, food webs and water cycles, energy from the sun, and everywhere that nature reveals her ways. Smart by Nature schooling draws on 3.8 billion years of natural research and development to find solutions to problems of sustainable living, make teaching and learning more meaningful, and create a more hopeful future for people and communities." Read on to learn more about School by Nature's efforts to inspire tomorrow's leaders and innovators.

Friday, May 20, 2016

Hero Teacher Killed While Saving Pregnant Woman During Massachusetts Mall Stabbing

Last Tuesday, when a crazed man began stabbing a waitress inside a Bertucci's Restaurant housed in a shopping mall Taunton, Massachusetts, 56-year-old George Heath didn't have time to think. Instead, the beloved teacher and avid windsurfer sprung into action, charging the suspect, grabbing him around the waist, and thwarting his relentless attempts to stab anyone within arm's reach.

While struggling with the knife-wielding man, who police later shot dead and identified as 28-year-old Arthur DaRosa, George was stabbed in the head. He died soon after arriving at an area hospital for treatment, according to his wife, Rosemary Heath, who spoke to PEOPLE Tuesday morning – one week after witnessing her husband's heroism and death.

"After he was stabbed, he paused for a moment, and fell to the floor," Rosemary tells PEOPLE. "I heard the off-duty cop" – who ultimately shot and killed DaRosa – "yelling, 'Drop your weapon,' so I knew I could bend down to help George.

"I knew it was terrible right away. Just before they took him away in an ambulance, someone came over to tell us he didn't just save the waitress but that he also saved her baby – because she's pregnant."

George was immediately flown by helicopter from Bertucci's to the emergency room, where doctors pronounced him deceased. En route to the hospital, George suffered a massive heart attack, Rosemary, George's wife of six years, says.

She adds, "He wasn't sitting in a seat where he was stabbed. He was protecting and defending someone and he died that way. He just reacted and it was amazing."

Rosemary says she's trying to stay positive in the wake of her heartbreaking loss but also says she wasn't even slightly shocked when her husband intervened last week. A visual design instructor at Greater New Bedford Regional Vocational Technical High School and a father of two, George was always looking out for other people – much like his favorite comic book character, Batman.

"In 2013, we were walking through the Providence Place Mall in Rhode Island and suddenly, he just disappeared," Rosemary recounts. "Turns out someone had just bought a new phone and they were programming it when a teenager ran by and stole it."

George gave his wife no warning before chasing after the fleeing thief, whom he tackled to the ground. George held the suspect down while an undercover detective swooped in to arrest the suspect.

"These two women were talking to me and asked, 'Is he a cop?,' and I responded, 'No...he's a teacher,'" says Rosemary of her dog-loving husband. "That's just who he was. He was always looking out for other people."

Rosemary tells PEOPLE that she has managed to stay strong this past week with help from George's students. Rather than focus on the fact that he's gone, George's students have been celebrating their teacher's life and legacy.

"The students have been focusing on the fact that he died protecting someone," Rosemary explains. "He was a hero and they don't want anyone to forget that. They want people to know what kind of a man George was, and it is inspiring them. I've been telling them, 'He loved his students, so do good in school because that is what he would have wanted.'"

A Tribute of Mismatched Shoes
Rosemary also wants George's students to remember something her husband would always espouse: If you have to laugh at someone, laugh at yourself.

"About two weeks ago, he wanted to get to school early, so he woke up that morning and got dressed in our closet, as to not wake me up," Rosemary begins. "When he got to school, he realized he had two different shoes on. Instead of being embarrassed about it, he told everyone what had happened."

On Friday, in George's honor, the students and staffers at Greater New Bedford Regional Vocational Technical High School wore mismatched shoes to class.

The students have also printed shirts boasting the teacher's name emblazoned across the Batman logo, wearing them to class and during a special ceremony held late last week in George's memory.

"Rather than dwelling on what happened, the students have been sharing their favorite memories of George," says Rosemary. "That's what he would have wanted. He didn't want a church service, he wanted us to throw a party where we could laugh, joke, and have a blast."

On June 4, George will be remembered during a special event that is being held at White's of Westport banquet hall and is open to the public.

"It will be a celebration of his life," Rosemary says. "I've been blown away by how positive his students have been through all of this, and thrilled they've been praising his life and what he stood for."

The waitress who George saved, Sheenah Savoy, remains in the hospital, where she continues to recover from her wounds, according to Rosemary, who has already met with Savoy's family.

During an event honoring her husband last week, Rosemary says Savoy's friends and relatives found her, and expressed their thanks for her husband's bravery.

"All of her family members and friends came out and greeted me with hugs and roses," Rosemary says. "I hope that George is remembered for his life, not his death."

Living with a Purpose Changes Everything

By Jill Suttie 

According to a new book, having a purpose in life is crucial for our health and well-being.

Victor Strecher, a behavioral scientist at the University of Michigan’s School of Public Health, lost his 19-year-old daughter to a sudden heart attack in 2010. Her fragility and eventual death upended his thoughts on what life should be about and how to live it—and he was moved to write a book called Life on Purpose
The book is first and foremost inspirational, focused on how the role of purpose in happiness and wellbeing has been debated by philosophers and discovered by individuals. It includes both Strecher’s personal revelations and those of others who’ve found purpose and changed the trajectory of their lives.
But the book is also a review on the science of purpose, which has blossomed in recent years. According to Strecher, the strength of one’s life purpose—which involves a combination of living according to your values and goals, and desiring to make a positive difference in the world—can be measured, and it correlates highly with psychological wellness and even markers of health and longevity.
For example, studies have found that for every one-point increase on a six-point scale measuring purpose in life, adults with heart disease have a 27 percent decreased risk of having a heart attack over a two-year period. For older adults, a one-point difference in purpose can mean a 22 percent decreased risk of having a stroke.
It’s not clear how purpose in life would have these impacts; but it’s possible that there is some kind of interaction with stress, which has already been shown to affect us at a cellular level. In one study, researchers looked at how meditation might impact gene health in highly stressed mothers. The length of mothers’ telomeres—the end caps on genes that tend to shorten with age—were measured before and after some of the moms attended a mindful meditation retreat.
Compared to a control group, women who’d received the meditation training did indeed have longer telomeres at the end of the retreat, suggesting better health. But the researchers found that this effect was accounted for not by increases in mindfulness, as expected, but by increases in a sense of life purpose, which the meditation inspired.
Studies like these show the potential positive impacts of purpose, which, Strecher argues, should encourage us to consider promoting it in our schools and workplaces. For example, students who are encouraged to consider education as relevant to their life purpose are more likely to try harder in classes they find boring or hard—such as science and math classes. And businesses that put purpose at the forefront tend to be more enjoyable places to work and more financially successful in the long run than those who only pursue profit. 
In one study, researchers found that hospital workers were 45 percent more inclined to use good hand-washing hygiene if they were told it helped prevent patients from catching diseases than if they were told it helped them. Connecting their habits to a service-oriented purpose inspired better behavior. 
“Pointing out to employees that their actions affect others can result in transcending behaviors—and save lives,” Strecher says.

Putting purpose into action

Of course, giving lip service to having a purpose in life is not going to cut it. It has to be genuine and to truly reflect your goals and values. Also, there is a difference between finding your purpose and acting upon it, says Strecher.
“The dynamic process of aligning yourself with your life purpose requires energy and willpower: wind in your sails to move you forward, and a strong rudder to prevent being blown off course,” he writes.
But how can we move from imagining our purpose to fulfilling it? Energy and willpower are needed, writes Strecher, and these can be boosted by making healthier lifestyle choices: sleeping and eating better, exercising, and being more present in your everyday life (e.g., through meditation or tai chi or other practices that increase your presence). The relationships between healthy lifestyle choices, energy, willpower, and purpose are all bidirectional—meaning they influence each other, he writes. Therefore, it makes sense to both figure out your purpose and engage more in healthy behaviors, in order to have enough energy and willpower to pursue your purpose. Much of his book is devoted to suggesting just how to do that.
Though studies found throughout the book lend some credence to Strecher’s claims about the benefits of purpose, they are relatively few in number and not always completely convincing. Even Strecher acknowledges that the science is still in its infancy.
“We still don’t know very much about interventions meant to increase purpose in life, let alone their results,” he writes.
Purpose may be more elusive than we realize—perhaps the culmination of a lifetime of personal interactions and individual experiences—and may be next to impossible to foster in the general public.
Still, it wouldn’t hurt the world if we all started examining our lives in deeper ways and tried a bit harder to find our own purpose. After all, any efforts that increase our desire to help the world are probably positive. And the consequences of not doing so could be dire.
“If I were you, I wouldn’t wait around for more research. I’d just get a purpose,” writes Strecher. “The scientific evidence supporting the benefits of one is extremely promising, and, at the risk of sounding a bit alarmist, we need it.”

Daily Inspirational Quote - May 20, 2016

“Transformation happens on the other side of surrender."

We have all struggled with problems in the past and, most of the time, done our utmost to find a solution, a way to move forward and leave whatever it is behind. However, occasionally, very occasionally, there are times when we should just say, “You know what, I give up. That’s it. I can do no more.” At those times perhaps that’s the way we’re meant to react to whatever, or whoever, is causing us a problem. By admitting and accepting that we don’t know the best way forward, can actually let the dust settle, so to speak, and we are then ready to be transformed into the person who just let’s things happen and trust that what follows is for the best.


The Art of Medicine: W.H Auden & Oliver Sachs

"The poetry of W.H. Auden was among Oliver Sacks's formative books. When the two men eventually became friends in the final years of Auden's life, Dr. Sacks was still a thirty-something neurologist with little more than a weightlifting record under his belt, a long way from becoming the Dante of medicine. Auden became an invaluable mentor as the young writer was honing the singular voice that would later render him the greatest science-storyteller of our time." Maria Popova shares more.

Thursday, May 19, 2016

Measuring Compassion in the Body

By Emiliana R. Simon-Thomas

What happens in Vagus… may make or break compassion.

Is there a biological fingerprint for compassion?
Two scientific teams, one led by Zoe Taylor at Purdue and the other by Jenny Stellar at UC Berkeley, have found that the answer may lie in the Vagus nerve. That’s the cranial nerve in the body with the widest reach, influencing speech, head positioning, digestion, and—importantly for these two studies—the parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system’s influence on the heart.
Students typically memorize the parasympathetic branch (PNS) as the “rest and digest” branch of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which controls bodily functions that we’re not aware of when we’re relaxed and feeling content. The PNS is also called the “feed and breed” branch—and recently, social psychologist Barbara Fredrickson added the label “tend and befriend” to the PNS, suggesting that it also supports functions that enable social engagement and nurturing behaviors.
These functionally descriptive labels for the PNS—“rest and digest,” “feed and breed,”  and “tend and befriend”—directly relate to the Vagus nerve, which turns out to be something of an enforcer for the PNS when it comes to the heart and compassion.

Roughly 20 years ago, Steve Porges of the University of Chicago pioneered PolyVagal theory, which suggested that the Vagus nerve fundamentally drives human social affiliation—the motivations and behaviors involved in approaching others in trusting, affectionate, and cooperative ways. Since then, social science researchers have measured Vagal activity to examine how it relates to social affiliation, particularly related states like empathy, sympathy, and compassion.
Here’s how we can take measurements of Vagal activity, using an electrocardiogram: A person’s average resting heart rate is kept relatively low because the Vagus exerts constant slowing influence on it; without this, our hearts would beat fatally fast. The Vagus nerve applies this heart-rate brake in a dynamic cyclic manner, slowing things down while we exhale, allowing it to beat faster when we inhale. The strength of a person’s overall Vagal activity can be indexed as the difference in heart rate during inhalation (faster; less Vagal brake) and exhalation (slower; more Vagal brake)—this measure is called respiratory sinus arrythmia, and is the most common way to measure overall Vagal tone.
The two new studies extend Porges’s work by suggesting that the Vagus may be key to the emergence of compassionate behavior during development as well as day-to-day experiences of compassion.
Zoe Taylor’s Purdue team invited families into the lab and videotaped three-and-a-half year old kids doing puzzles and playing with their parent for six minutes. Researchers watched the videos and systematically noted the parents’ expressions of warmth, sensitivity, and ability to direct and monitor the kids without getting angry. During this visit researchers also outfitted the children with electrocardiogram electrodes to record Vagal tone while the kids watched two short films: one neutral, the other showing crying babies, which was intended to elicit sympathy.
After a year, the researchers brought the same children back to the lab to observe their capacity for “effortful control”—that is, their ability to stay on task during a series of exercises that assessed problem solving, fine motor coordination, and expressive and receptive vocabulary skills, which they could compare to answers on a questionnaire about the kids given to parents and teachers. Finally, when these same kids were six and seven years old, the team collected survey responses from parents and teachers about the children’s levels of sympathy.
After analyzing the data, here’s what they found: warm, sensitive parenting for three year olds predicts greater focused concentration in the children one year later—which in turn predicts greater sympathy at ages six and seven. Vagal tone in the kids at three years also predicts sympathy three and four years later. As was the case for parenting style, the Vagal tone effect was largely related to the children’s concentration skills as four years olds. 
Together, these data suggest that warm, sensitive, authoritative parenting may support skills like managing emotions and focusing attention, and that children with higher Vagal tone are more likely to have these skills, which in turn paves the way for sympathy for other peoples’ suffering.
Jenny Stellar’s team at UC Berkeley took a slightly different tact: They measured Vagal tone while grown-up people were in the midst of feeling compassion. In particular, the Berkeley team wanted to know whether Vagal tone increases—in other words, if the Vagus exerts more influence on the nervous system during an actual experience of compassion.
In a series of four studies, researchers invited college students come into the lab, outfitted them with electrocardiogram sensors, and then had them watch a video of a peer describing her feelings about a death in the family, a sequence of photographs of suffering people (such as starving children), or videos of children being treated for cancer at St. Jude’s hospital. Another control group of students watched an uninteresting video (of a guy building a fence), slides evocative of pride, or an inspiring video. After the videos, the students picked a single number on a scale to indicate the level of compassion they felt.
In comparing these different groups, researchers found that eliciting feelings of compassion always increased Vagal tone. But the Berkeley team made one disconcerting observation from their first three studies—the magnitude of self-reported feelings of compassion did not correlate with greater Vagal tone.
So does Vagal tone really correspond to levels of felt compassion? To answer this, they tried a more nuanced experiment where students indicated their levels of felt compassion in real time using a continuous dial (rather than filling out a scale after the fact, as in the first three experiments). This more visceral method showed that indeed, feelings of compassion were associated with increased Vagal tone.
In sum, the Vagus nerve appears to be intimately tied to experiencing compassion towards other people’s suffering, providing more evidence for Porges’s PolyVagal theory. More specifically, these studies show that what happens in your Vagus affects whether or not you can handle the feelings provoked by another person’s suffering—and whether or not you’ll feel concerned and motivated to help.
There are also practical implications for childrearing. Warm, sympathetic, and authoritative parents are like co-pilots for the Vagus nerve in helping children to develop their ability to feel sympathy and compassion—and then to act on that impulse.

How Love Grows in Your Body

By Jeremy Adam Smith

Here are the places where romantic love abides in our bodies—and the role each one plays in sustaining love over time.

“Love is not love which alters when it alteration finds,” wrote William Shakespeare in his 116th Sonnet. “O no! it is an ever-fixed mark that looks on tempests and is never shaken.”
Nothing could be further from the truth, says the new science of romantic love.
Love is, first and foremost, an emotion—but one that is, more than most emotions, rooted in our bodies and in the ways our bodies age together. I’m not just referring to the vagaries of lust, though that can lead to romantic love. As love grows and deepens, it lights up some parts of our nervous system and dims others. The importance of feel-good hormones like serotonin and dopamine may decline over the course of a relationship—but a love that reaches maturity will bind the lovers on a neurological level.
Far from an “an ever-fixed mark,” love is a process subject to biological forces beyond our conscious control. Drawing from new research by Dacher Keltner, Barbara Fredrickson, Helen Fisher, Kayt Sukel(author of Dirty Minds), and many neuroscientists, here is a list of the places where love abides in our bodies—and the role each one plays in sustaining love over time.

Lust is Born: The Hypothalamus

As this brain scan image suggests, romantic and maternal love affect many of the same parts of the brain—with a few crucial differences. In the brain of a lover, for instance, lust emerges in the funnel-shaped hypothalamus and lights up dopamine-rich parts of the basal ganglia, which is involved in learning and rewards. In other words, lust drives us in a way that motherhood doesn’t. What about when we’re rejected by a prospective lover? In that sad event, the right ventral putamen–pallidum and accumbens core activate.  Learn more about the brain in lust.

Pursuit Begins: Androgens

When sexual pursuit begins, the brain releases a class of hormone called androgens, including testosterone—which, yes, also happens in women when they see something they want. In fact, as Helen Fisher points out, women produce more new testosterone than men when they compete for a prize. And in the bodies of both men and women, sex raises testosterone counts. So with the right person, the more sex you have, the more sex you want—and the more willing you are to chase after it. Learn more about the effects of testosterone.

Can’t Get Enough: Orgasms

Orgasm consumes as many as 30 parts of the brain, including those involved in touch, fantasy, memory, and reward. As you can see in this image of an orgasm Kayt Sukel experienced in a brain scanner, the climax burns through the brain like wildfire, setting alight the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex (while smothering other parts, like the left orbitofrontal cortex, which is involved in decision making). Orgasm releases serotonin and opioids whose chemicals we also find in heroin—thus it is no surprise that sex with the right person can become addictive. Get some Greater Good sex tips.

Judgement Fails: The Amygdala

There’s an old region near the brainstem called the amygdala. That’s the threat-detector—it starts firing when you see danger, risk, and uncertainty. When you’re in the intense throes of romantic love, the amygdala sleeps, as do parts of the frontal lobe, which involves judgment. The upshot is that the brain in love is prone to bad decisions—it has trouble detecting threats (like jealous spouses) and connecting actions with long-term consequences (like the effects of unprotected sex). Learn more about the amygdala.

Trust and Devotion Grow: Oxytocin

As the brain moves from lust to love, the ventral pallidum activates. Our blood is flooded with the neurotransmitter oxytocin, which predicts attachment behavior, and has been shown to increase generosity and empathy. Women already have a lot of oxytocin, but studies show that men get a big surge in it after a long, passionate kiss; it’s one of the biological forces that moves them away from pure lust toward care, trust, and devotion. This is also true of rodents—if you give a promiscuous vole a little dose of oxytocin, it becomes monogamous.Learn more about oxytocin.

Bodies and Minds Synchronize: The Vagus Nerve

As positive psychologist Barbara Fredrickson has described, heart rhythms, facial expressions, and hand gestures begin to synchronize in long-term lovers—a process largely regulated by the vagus nerve, which winds from the brain to the heart. This neurological alignment enables us to detect trouble or pain in our beloved when no else can.
And as lovers tune in to each other, they become more willing and able to make sacrifices for the relationship. Research finds that if sacrifice comes out of a desire to alleviate suffering in our spouses, we get many mental and physical health benefits.
The love may have cooled and calmed—we’re no longer getting the same sweaty shots of dopamine and serotonin—but it is deeper, heavier, more beneficial, more compassionate. The vagus nerve response strengthens with more compassionate feeling, and there is more activity in brain regions that help reduce anxiety and pain. Discover the secrets of the vagus nerve and the science of love in the autumn years.

From Passion to Compassion: The Skin

Touch is “our primary language of compassion,”says Dacher Keltner, “and a primary means for spreading compassion.” Touching in couples increases happiness and lowers stress levels, but there are some gender differences in how touch is perceived: Dacher’s research shows that women aren’t always able to feel the compassion in a man’s touch, and men are often slow to pick up on anger in a woman’s touch.
But we learn to forgive and our bodies gradually learn each other right down to our cells. The research says that, over time, we can come to see and appreciate our partner’s weakness, as well as our own—and we become capable of giving our partners the compassion which we would like to receive.
When love reaches maturity, nothing can comfort us more than the feel of our lover’s skin against our skin. Learn more about how to sustain compassion in a long-term relationship and take our quiz to test how compassionate your love is.

Where to Find Wisdom in the Body

By Jill Suttie

According to a new study, people with higher heart rate variability are wiser—when they make an effort to be objective.

Many cultures consider the human heart to be the seat of wisdom. Now scientists are finding some evidence for this, though the reality may be more complicated than it seems.
Previous research has suggested that higher heart rate variability (HRV)—the variability in the time between our heartbeats, which is a measure of heart health—is associated with better cognitive and emotional functioning. For example, higher HRV has been linked to better working memory and attention, higher levels of empathy and social functioning, and better emotional self-control. Could heart rate variability be linked to better moral judgments, as well?
Researcher Igor Grossmann from the University of Waterloo, Ontario, and his colleagues at the University of Western Sydney in Australia, looked at how HRV interacts with moral reasoning and judgment—or wisdom—in a series of experiments.
To measure wisdom, one hundred eighty-six participants were asked to select a social or political issue currently being debated in Australia that they felt particularly strongly about—such as climate change, unemployment, taxes, etc. Then they were asked to discuss their insights into the issue and how they thought it might play out over time using one of two possible viewpoints: 1) a “self-immersed” or subjective, more personal perspective, using first-person pronouns like “I” or “me” when possible; or 2) a “self-distanced” or more objective, third-person perspective, using pronouns like “he” or “she” when possible.
The researchers wanted to see if directing people to take the perspective of others (versus thinking in a more egocentric way) might play a role in wise reasoning, and how that interacted with HRV. Past studies had found that wisdom might not arise simply from higher levels of cognitive functioning (which is linked to HRV); a self-distanced perspective might also be needed to facilitate insight.
Observers blind to the experiment coded the participants’ discussions, looking for evidence of wisdom—defined as a recognition of one’s limits of knowledge, the possibility of change, and others’ perspectives, and an attempt to integrate these different points of view.
Afterwards, the participants were asked to make judgments about a fictitious person who engaged in neutral or morally ambiguous activities, such as returning (or not) a found wallet, or keeping change (or not) when a roommate gave them money to buy pizza. Observers rated these judgments for bias based on whether participants considered both dispositional factors and situational factors in making their judgments, or if they relied only on one or the other. For example, participants would be considered biased if they said that keeping a wallet signified that the person was dishonest, period (relying on dispositional explanations alone), without considering the possibility that circumstance—e.g., the person was poor and needed the money—might have played a role.
Analyses showed that having high HRV was connected to wisdom, but only if individuals had been instructed to take a self-distanced perspective. Participants with high resting HRV (recorded before and after the experiments) who were assigned to the “self-distanced” perspective were significantly more likely to display wise reasoning and less biased judgments than those with high HRV assigned to the “self-immersed” perspective, while those with low HRV did not seem to reason or judge differently based on their assigned perspective.
This suggests to Grossmann that having high HRV is not enough to improve one’s moral reasoning or to prevent bias, even if it has been tied to better thinking and emotional regulation in past research.
“The efficient processing of information or a lot of prefrontal cortex activity alone does not necessarily make you wiser. You also need to step beyond your own immediate self-interest for that,” he says. “So not everyone that has higher heart rate variability will suddenly be a wise person.”
Grossmann believes that the current study builds on some of his prior research in which he found important differences between intelligence, cognitive activity, and wisdom. In previous studies, he’d found that intelligence didn’t seem to impact one’s wellbeing, whereas wise reasoning seems to be associated with various markers of individual wellbeing and happiness. This suggests that wisdom and intelligence are separate constructs.
“Wise reasoning is only weakly related to general cognitive abilities,” he says.
Though HRV may play a role in wisdom, Grossman thinks that there isn’t a lot one can do to change it—it’s more a matter of individual differences. But, he says, we may want to consider training people in impartial, third-person perspective taking to help them be wiser in life, whether they have high HRV or not. He and his team are involved in a number of projects aimed at helping others to be more objective—in social, political, and intergroup conflict situations—and eventually producing more long-lasting changes.
“I don’t know exactly what the nuances of this intervention would be, but I hope to tell you in a year,” he says.